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Mills, M.C., F.C. Tropf, D.M. Brazel, et al. (2021) Identification of 371 genetic variants for age at first sex and birth linked to externalising behaviour, Nature Human Behaviour, doi: 10.1038/s41562-021-01135-3. The paper is available at or

Akimova, E.T., R. Breen, D.M. Brazel, M.C. Mills (2021). Gene-environment dependencies lead to collider bias in models with polygenic scores, Scientific Reports, 11: 457. 



Aburto, JM et al, M.C. Mills (2021). Estimating the burden of the COVID-19 pandemic on mortality, life expectancy and lifespan inequality in England and Wales: a population-level analysis, Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health

Matthieson, I. et al. M.C.Mills & J. Perry (under review) Genome-wide analyses for reproductive success highlight contemporary natural selection at FADS1/2 locus


Mills, M.C. and F.C.Tropf. (2020). Sociology, Genetics and the Coming of Age of Sociogenomics, Annual Review of Sociology 46: 553-581.

Mills, M.C., N. Barban and F.C.Tropf. (2020). An Introduction to Statistical Genetic Data Analysis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (450 pages).

Mills, M.C. and C. Rahal. (2020). The GWAS Diversity Monitor tracks diversity by disease in real-time, Nature Genetics. 52: 242–243. Accompanied by the GWAS Diversity Monitor Dashboard

Dowd, JB, Andriano, A, Brazel DM, Rotondi, V., Block, P, Ding, X, Liu Y & M.C. Mills (2020). Demographic Science aids in understanding the spread and fatality rates of COVID-19, PNAS: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(18): 9696-98

Block, P., Hoffman, M., Raabe, I.J., Dowd, J.B., Rahal, C., Kashyap, R. & M.C. Mills (2020). Social network-based distancing strategies to flatten the COVID-19 curve in a post-lockdown world, Nature Human Behaviour, 4: 588-596.


Mills, M.C. (2019). 'How do genes effect same-sex behavior?', Science, 365(6456): 869-870.


Mills, M.C. and C. Rahal. (2019) ‘A Scientometric Review of Genome-Wide Association Studies,’ Communications Biology 2(9)


Ding, X., N. Barban, F.C. Tropf & M.C.Mills (2019). 'The relationship between cognitive decline and a genetic predictor of educational attainment,' Social Science & Medicine, 239: 112549. 

Ding, X. Barban, N. & M.C. Mills. (2019). 'Educational attainment and allostatic load in later life: Evidence using genetic markers,' Preventive Medicine, 129: 105866. 


Mills, M.C. (2019) 'Genetic determinism versus genetic ignorance,' in Biosocieties, pp. 2-9.



Murtagh, M. J. et al. (2018) ‘Better governance, better access: practising responsible data sharing in the METADAC governance infrastructure,’ Human Genomics, 12:24. doi: 10.1186/s40246-018-0154-6

Mills, M.C., N. Barban & F.C. Tropf. (2018). ‘The Sociogenomics of Polygenic Scores of Reproductive Behavior and Their Relationship to Other Fertility Traits,’ RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences 4(4), doi: 10.7758/RSF.2018.4.4.07.



Tropf, F.C. et al. M.C. Mills. (2017).‘Hidden heritability due to heterogeneity across seven populations,’ Nature Human Behaviour, 1: 757-765. doi: 10.1038/s41562-017-0195-1

Präg, P. & M.C. Mills. (2017). ‘Cultural determinants influence assisted reproduction usage in Europe more than economic and demographic factors’, Human Reproduction, 32(11): 2305-2314. doi: 10.1093/humrep/dex298

Verweij, R.M., M.C. Mills et al. (2017). ‘Sexual dimorphism in the genetic influence on human childlessness,’ European Journal of Human Genetics, 25: 1067-74 doi:10.1038/ejhg.2017.105

Briley, D., F.C. Tropf, M.C.Mills (2017). “What explains the heritability of completed fertility? Evidence from Two large Twin Studies,” Behaviour Genetics, 47(1): 36-51. doi:10.1007/s10519-016-9805-3

Barbuscia, A. & M. C. Mills. (2017). ‘Cognitive development in children up to age 11 years born after ART – a longitudinal cohort study,’ Human Reproduction. 32(7): 1482-88. doi: 10.1093/humrep/dex102

Präg, P. & M. C. Mills (2017). “Assisted Reproductive Technology in Europe: Usage and Regulation in the Context of Cross-Border Reproductive Care,” pp. 289-309, in: M. Kreyenfeld & D. Konietzka (Eds.) Childlessness in Europe: Contexts, Causes and Consequences. New York: Springer.

Potârcă, G., M. Mills & M. van Duijn. (2017). The Choices and Constraints of Secondary Singles. Willingness to Stepparent among Divorced Online Daters across Europe, Journal of Family Issues, 38(10): 1443-1470. doi: 10.1177/0192513X16631017

Präg, P, R. Wittek, M.C. Mills (2017). “The educational gradient in self-rated health in Europe: Does the doctor-patient relationship make a difference?” Acta Sociologica, 60(4): 325-341. doi: 10.1177/0001699316670715



Barban N, et. al. and M.C. Mills (2016) Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior. Nature Genetics, doi: 10.1038/ng.3698  Supplementary Text & Figures, Supplementary Data


Press release; Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ); Data

Curtiol A., Tropf, F.C and M.C. Mills (2016) When genes and environment disagree: Making sense of trends in recent human evolution. PNAS doi: 10.1073/pnas.1608532113

Briley, D., F.C. Tropf, M.C.Mills (forthcoming). “What explains the heritability of completed fertility? Evidence from Two large Twin Studies,” Behaviour Genetics doi:10.1007/s10519-016-9805-3

Stulp, G., R. Sear, M.Mills, L. Barrett. (forthcoming). The reproductive ecology of industrial societies: the association between wealth and fertility, Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective

Mehta, D. et al. (2016). Evidence for genetic overlap between schizophrenia and age at first birth in women. JAMA Psychiatry, 73(3):193-194. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2016.0129

Okbay, A. et al. (2016) Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses. Nature Genetics. Published Online 18 April 2016 doi:10.1038/ng.3552

Mills, M .and F. Tropf (2016). The biodemography of fertility: A review and future research frontiers, Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, Special Issue on Demography 67: 397-424

Täht, K. & M. Mills. (2016). Out of Time. The Consequences of Non-standard Employment Schedules for Family Cohesion. New York: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-94-017-7402-4

Mills, M.C. & P. Präg. (2016). Methodological Advances in Cross-National Research: Multilevel Challenges and Solutions, European Sociological Review, 32(1): doi: 10.1093/esr/jcw009

Präg, P., M. Mills & R.P.M. Wittek. (2016). Subjective Socioeconomic Status and Health in Cross-National Comparison, Social Science & Medicine, 149: 84-92.

Visser, M., L. Heyse, M.Mills & R.P.M. Wittek (forthcoming) Enabling work life balance in an unbalanced environment: Job autonomy and trust in management among humanitarian aid expatriates. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. doi:10.1177/0899764016634890



Stulp, G., Barrett, L., Tropf, F.C., Mills, M. (2015). Does natural selection favour taller stature among the tallest people on earth? Proceedings of the Royal Society B. doi:10.1098/rspb.2015.0211

F. C. Tropf, G. Stulp, N. Barban, P. M. Visscher, J. Yangd, H. Snieder, M. Mills (2015). “Human Fertility, Molecular Genetics, and Natural Selection in Modern Societies” PLOS ONE 10(6):

F. C. Tropf, N. Barban, H. Snieder, M. Mills, J.J. Mandemakers (2015) “A Behavioural Genetic Study of Age at First Birth of Female UK Twins” Population Studies 69(2): 129-145 paper

Sironi M., N. Barban and R. Impicciatore (2015), “The Role of Parental Social Class in the Transition to Adulthood,” Advances in Life Course Research 26, 89-104

Sweeney, M., Castro, T. & M. Mills. (2015). The reproductive context of cohabitation in a comparative perspective, Demographic Research, 32(5): 147-182. doi:10.4054/DemRes.2015.32.5

Potârcă, G., M. Mills & W. Neberich. (2015). Relationship Preferences among Gay and Lesbian Online Daters: Individual and Contextual Influences, Journal of Marriage and Family. Volume 77(2): 523–541.

Begall, K., M. Mills & H.B.G. Ganzeboom. (2015). Non-Standard Work Schedules and Childbearing in the Netherlands: A Mixed-Method Couple Analysis, Social Forces, 93(3): 957-988. doi: 10.1093/sf/sou110

Korff, V.P., N. Balbo, M. Mills, L. Heyse & R. Wittek. (2015). The impact of humanitarian context conditions and individual characteristics on aid worker retention, Disasters, 39(3): 522–545. doi: 10.1111/disa.12119. doi: 10.1111/disa.12119.

Djundeva, M., M. Mills et al. (forthcoming/2015). Receiving Instrumental Support in Late Parent-Child Relationships and Parental Depression, Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbu136



Stulp, G, Mills, M., T. Pollet and Barrett, L. (2014) “Non-linear associations between stature and mate choice characteristics for American men and their spouses,” American Journal of Human Biology, 26(4): 530-537.

N. Balbo and N. Barban, (2014). “Does fertility behavior spread among friends? American Sociological Review, 79(3):412-431

N. Barban, “Family trajectories and health: A life course perspective,” (2013) European Journal of Population, 29(4):357-385

Damman, M., Heyse, L. and M. Mills. (2014). Gender, Occupation, and Promotion to Management in the Nonprofit Sector: The Critical case of MSF Holland, Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 25(2): 97-111.

Präg, P., M. Mills & R.P.M. Wittek (2014) Income and income inequality as social determinants of health: Do social comparisons play a role? European Sociological Review, 30 (2): 218-229.

Ivanova, K., Mills, M. and R. Veenstra (2014). Parental Residential and Partnering Transitions as Triggers of Adolescent Romantic Relationships, Journal of Marriage and Family, 76: 465–475

Basten, S., Sobotka, T., K. Zeman et al. (2014). Future Fertility in Low Fertility Countries, In: World Population and Human Capital in the 21st Century, W. Lutz, B. Butz & K.C. Samir (Eds.). Oxford University Press.



Balbo, N., Billari, F.C. and Mills, M. (2013). “Fertility in advanced societies: A review​,” European Journal of Population, 29: 1-38.

Begall, K.H. and M.Mills (2013). The Influence of Educational Field, Occupation and Occupational Sex Segregation on Fertility in the Netherlands, European Sociological Review, 29 (4): 720-742

Potârcă, G., Mills, M. and Lesnard, L. (2013). Family formation trajectories in Romania, the Russian Federation and France: Towards the Second Demographic Transition? European Journal of Population, 29: 69-101.

Balbo, N., Billari, F.C. and Mills, M. (2013). Fertility in advanced societies: A review, European Journal of Population, 29: 1-38.

Mills, M. and H.-P. Blossfeld. (2013). The Second Demographic Transition meets Globalization: A comprehensive theory to understand changes in family formation in an era of uncertainty, in: A. Evans and J. Baxter (eds.) Negotiating the Life Course. New York: Springer.

Mills, M. (2013). Globalization and Family Life, In: A. Abela and J. Walker (Eds.), Contemporary Issues in Family Studies: Global Perspectives on Partnerships, Parenting and Support in a Changing World, Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.



Mooi-Reci, I. and M. Mills (2012). Gender Inequality and Unemployment Reforms: Lessons from twenty years of unemployment insurance benefit experiments, Social Forces, 91(2): 583-608.

Täht, K. and M.Mills (2012). Non-standard work schedules and parent-child interaction: A mixed-method couple analysis,Journal of Family Issues, 33(8): 1054-1087.

Poortman, A.-R. and M. Mills (2012). Joint investments in marriage and cohabitation: The role of legal and symbolic factors,Journal of Marriage and Family 74(2): 357-376.

Ivanova, K., R. Veenstra, and M. Mills. (2012). Who Dates? The Effects of Temperament, Puberty, and Parenting on Early Adolescent Experience with Dating. The TRAILS study, Journal of Early Adolescence. 32(3): 340-363.

Mills, M. (2012). Family Systems, Kinship”. In: Anheier, H. and Juergensmeyer, M.(Eds.), Encyclopedia of Global Studies, pp. 554-56. London, UK: Sage Publications.

Minello A. and N. Barban, (2012) “The educational expectations of children of immigrants in Italy,” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 643(1): 78–103.

Barban N. and F. C. Billari, (2012) “Classifying life course trajectories. A comparison between la- tent class and sequence analysis,” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series C (Applied Statistics), 61(5):765–784.



Mills, M. (2011). Introducing Survival and Event History Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA/London: Sage. (279 pages).

Mills, M., R.R. Rindfuss, P. McDonald and E. te Velde (2011). Why do people postpone parenthood? Reasons and social policy incentives, Human Reproduction Update, 17(6): 848-860.

Balbo, N.F.G and M. Mills (2011). Social capital and pressure in fertility decision-making: second and third births in France, Germany and Bulgaria, Population Studies, 65(3): 335-351.

Begall, K.H. and M. Mills (2011). The impact of perceived work control, job strain and work-family conflict on fertility intentions: A European comparison, European Journal of Population. 27(4): 433-456.

Ivanova, K., M. Mills and R. Veenstra. (2011). The initiation of dating in adolescence: The effect of parental divorce. The TRAILS study, Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(4): 769-775.

Balbo, N.F.G. and M. Mills (2011). The influence of the family network on the realization of fertility intentions, Vienna Yearbook of Population Research Vol. 19: 187-215.

Wielers, R.J.J. and M.Mills (2011). The Flexibilization of the Dutch Labour Market: The Impact of Globalization on the Life Course and Inequality, In: H.P. Blossfeld, S. Buchholz, D. Hofaecker, K. Kolb (Eds).,Globalized Markets and Social Inequality in Europe. pp. 46-75, New York: Palgrave MacMillan

Barban N. and M.J. White, (2011) “Immigrants children`s transition to secondary school in Italy.” International Migration Review, 45(3): 702–726.

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